Posts Tagged ‘law’

The Kentucky Supreme Court denied our Motion For Discretionary Review of the Frog Gravy legal case without opinion or comment. Here is a copy of the order:

10 02/15/2012 ORDER DENYING DISCRETIONARY REVIEW: DD
11 02/15/2012 FINALITY: FL

Source.

This means we have reached the end of the road on the direct appeal in Kentucky and the published opinion by the Court of Appeals is the law of the case. The briefs filed by the parties will be available online at the Chase Law School in Kentucky at some point.

Documents in this case, including the briefs and the published opinion (pdf), are also available here:

https://froggravy.wordpress.com/2012/02/06/table-of-contents-court-briefs-and-documents-frog-gravy-legal-case/

The preliminary hearing is here:

https://froggravy.wordpress.com/2012/02/05/the-full-text-preliminary-hearing-frog-gravy-legal-case/

The Grand Jury hearing is here:

https://froggravy.wordpress.com/2012/01/12/the-full-text-grand-jury-hearing/

The exculpatory labs are here:

https://froggravy.wordpress.com/2011/10/16/grand-jury-misuse-and-perjury-frog-gravy-38/

The suppression hearing is here:

https://froggravy.wordpress.com/2012/02/08/the-full-text-suppression-hearing-pdf-frog-gravy-legal-case/

The first order denying suppression:

https://froggravy.wordpress.com/2012/02/08/the-first-of-three-orders-denying-suppression-frog-gravy-legal-case/

And the second, and the third:

https://froggravy.wordpress.com/2012/02/08/the-second-and-third-orders-denying-suppression-frog-gravy-legal-case/

Other documents:

https://froggravy.wordpress.com/2012/02/13/more-documents-frog-gravy-legal-case/

What is the next step in this case?

There are three options right now:

1. Do nothing. The case no longer specifically impacts our day-to-day lives one way or the other. Fortunately, I am not on death row. The case will impact others in the future, because it is published and it sets precedent. One option is to do nothing.

2. Petition the United States Supreme Court for Certiorari, or review, of the decision. The issues are very specific in such a petition. Here is more information about Certiorari:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Certiorari

3. File a state habeas corpus petition alleging ineffective assistance of counsel. In Kentucky, this is called an 11.42 petition. Here is more information about that:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ineffective_assistance_of_counsel

It will be interesting to see how this case will impact future cases.

This latest result is entirely consistent with the patterns and practices of the case so far, as evidenced by these documents.

written by Masoninblue and reblogged here with permission from frederickleatherman.wordpress.com

Drone State?

by Truthout on Creative Commons at Flickr

Judges use a legal expression when they decide to prevent the potential evisceration of a fundamental rule of law by exception. In denying an argument to recognize such a proposed exception, they point out that, if they were to accept it, the exception would “swallow the rule.”

Our fundamental constitutional right to due process of law is in danger of being swallowed up by the Obama Administration’s policies of assassinating and indefinitely detaining United States citizens, no matter where they may be located, without due process of law, if the president decides that the citizen is a terrorist, supports terrorism, or is a member of al-Qaeda, an affiliate of al-Qaeda, or an associated force.

For example, in a recent federal case in which Anwar al-Awlaki’s father sued President Obama, Secretary of Defense Gates, and CIA Director Leon Panetta seeking to prevent them from assassinating his son without due process of law, the Department of Justice persuaded the judge to dismiss the case because, nothwithstanding the Due Process Clause of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments that explicitly prohibit the government from depriving a person of “life, liberty, or property without due process of law,” the judicial branch of government has no constitutional authority to question or review decisions by the president as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces to assassinate U.S. citizens on his say so anywhere in the world at any time pursuant to the Authorization to Use Military Force (AUMF), passed by Congress in response to 9/11, and the president’s authority under Article 2 of the United States Constitution.

Go here to read the government’s arguments in its motion to dismiss the father’s complaint.

Anwar al-Awlaki and Samir Khan, both U.S. citizens, were subsequently assassinated in Yemen last September by Hellfire missiles fired from a U.S. drone. Mr. al-Awlaki’s 16-year-old son, Abdulrahman, was assassinated by drone two weeks later.

As Glenn Greenwald points out today, the Obama Administration hypocritically uses the CIA drone assassination program to publicly congratulate itself on removing targeted individuals like al-Awlaki “from the field” without due process of law while at the same it refuses to admit or deny that it has a list of targeted individuals and a drone assassination program. With the exception of Mr. al-Awlaki, whose name was confidentially disclosed to journalist Dana Priest as a person targeted for assassination, we do not know whether the president has targeted anyone else and, assuming that he has, we do not know if such person or persons have been assassinated. We also do not know what criteria the president uses to decide whether to put someone on the list. For all we know, any one of us already could be on the list or at risk to be added to it. Since we do not know whether we are on the list and we cannot find out if we are, we cannot challenge the president’s decision to add us to the list, assuming for the sake of argument that he did. We, by which I include every U.S. citizen no matter where situated in the world, are left with no choice except to trust the president to never make a mistake and never succumb to the temptation to use the assassination program for political purposes.

In the mistake department, one need only consider the relatively frequent stories that pop up about innocent people, including young children, whose names inexplicably are added to the No-Fly List maintained by the Department of Homeland Security. I will not go into the category of assassinations for political purposes as it remains a raw and bleeding wound of grief and endless suspicion and speculation by many people. Think, for example of John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., Dr. Bruce Ivins and others too numerous to mention. The point is that many unscrupulous people of wealth and privilege covet the power of the presidency. We already know that this president is for sale and we cannot trust him. The question is whether, assuming you openly oppose him, you are willing to trust him not to target you for assassination. And if you trust him not to do so, would you also trust a Newt Gingrich, a Sarah Palin, or someone like them not to do so, if they should be elected president?

The answer to that question should be self-evident.

Consider these words written by Justice Black of the United States Supreme Court in Reid v. Covert, 354 U. S. 1, 10 (1956):

Trial by jury in a court of law and in accordance with traditional modes of procedure after an indictment by grand jury has served and remains one of our most vital barriers to governmental arbitrariness. These elemental procedural safeguards were embedded in our Constitution to secure their inviolateness and sanctity against the passing demands of expediency or convenience.

This is not the first president and certainly will not be the last to seek to detain people indefinitely and/or target them for assassination without due process of law in the name of keeping us safe. Whether in good faith or in bad faith for political purposes in the pursuit of power, I feel much safer if his decisions and actions are constrained by the Due Process Clause and the right to habeas corpus.

Cross posted from my law blog.

Even though he said he would veto it, President Obama has announced that he will sign the National Defense Authorization Bill that gives him and the military the authority to indefinitely detain U.S. citizens suspected of supporting terrorist activity. I am not surprised because Obama lies all the time about everything and he already claims to have the power to order any person in the world assassinated, no matter where situated and whether or not a U.S. citizen, if he decides that person is a terrorist or has provided material support for terrorism.

The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides:

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Emphasis supplied.

Nothing explicit or implicit in the Fifth Amendment creates or justifies an exception to the Due Process Clause that I italicized, and if you carefully listen with your heart, you can almost hear our Founding Fathers shouting, “NO.”

Using post-conviction DNA testing, the Innocence Project, which was formed by Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld at the Benjamin Cardozo School of Law in New York City approximately 20 years ago, has exonerated 282 innocent people who were wrongfully convicted of crimes. 17 people were on death row awaiting execution when they were exonerated.

“The Disturbing Case of Eddie Lowery” will be shown tomorrow night (Friday, December 16th) on MSNBC at 10 PM. He is one of those 282 innocent people. Mr. Lowery falsely confessed to a rape he did not commit and spent 10 years in prison before he was exonerated. You can visit the website for the Innocence Project and watch a preview of tomorrow night’s show here.

The Death Penalty Information Center issued a report today entitled, “The Death Penalty in 2011: Year End Report, which you can read here.

The Center reports that, while 1277 people sentenced to death since 1976 in the U.S. have been executed, 139 people sentenced to death have been exonerated (this number includes the 17 people exonerated by post-conviction DNA testing). That is more than 10% of the number of people executed.

The high number of post-conviction exonerations does not inspire confidence in the ability of the criminal-justice system to only convict the guilty and always acquit the innocent, despite due process of law.

Researchers have identified seven causes of wrongful convictions. They are:

1. Mistaken eyewitness testimony;

2. Police misconduct;

3. Prosecutorial misconduct;

4. Forensic fraud;

5. Ineffective assistance of counsel;

6. False confessions; and

7. Jailhouse informants.

To the extent we have information about the people detained at Guantanamo, approximately 80 to 90% are innocent. Most of the people detained by the U.S. military there and other places were identified by paid informants as terrorists and many of them confessed while being tortured.

There is no evidence-based reason to believe that the military is any better at only convicting the guilty and always acquitting the innocent than the civilian criminal-justice system. In fact, given the kangaroo-court-style military tribunal process, there is good reason to believe that there is a much higher probability of wrongful convictions by military tribunals.

Despite all of the well-documented examples of the wrongful conviction of innocent people accorded due process of law in civilian courts and the identification of the causes of those wrongful convictions, President Obama apparently would have us believe that he and his review panel would never make a mistake and order the assassination of an innocent person.

And now the U.S. Congress has granted him the authority to order U.S. citizens, whom he suspects of providing material support to terrorists, detained indefinitely by the U.S. military without access to lawyers and the civilian courts.

This is an egregious and unpardonable sin against the U.S. Constitution, Bill of Rights, Rule of Law, and we the people of the United States.

Given the secretive manner in which senators Carl Levin (D) and John McCain (R) cooked-up this law behind closed doors without conducting any hearings or calling any witnesses, I cannot help but believe that this law was enacted with the OWS protests in mind.

Everyone who participated in drafting, supporting, and enacting this horrific law is unfit to serve in government. They should be immediately removed from office and forever barred from serving in public office in the future in any capacity.

Let December 15, 2011 forever be known as America’s National Day of Shame.

Cross posted from my law blog.

Hello everyone. This post is written by Masoninblue and cross-posted here full text with permission. His web site is frederickleatherman.wordpress.com. I encourage you to visit his site if you are interested in legal topics. His site does not include the incarceration aspect of Frog Gravy, but it does address legal aspects of the case. This site, Frog Gravy, has a mixture of both.

Thank you for visiting our sites, and we wish you a peaceful and blessed holiday season!

Empathy is the basis for true morality.
Empathy is the basis for true morality
by aerie under flickr Creative Commons

Randian neoliberals, as in Ayn Rand, believe in competition and social darwinism. They claim that human life is like a vast jungle and they have adopted “survival of the fittest,” formerly known as the law of the jungle, as the guiding principle of their lives.

They adopted Grover Nordquist’s advice to privatize government as much as possible and drown what little remains of it “in a bathtub” abolishing all laws, regulations, and regulatory oversight.

They claim they want to create the free marketplace that Adam Smith wrote about in the Wealth of Nations; a mystical place controlled by the “invisible hand” of self-interest that they declare to be maximizing short-term profits.

They have elevated greed to the status of not just any god, but the god of gods. That their interpretation ignores Adam Smith’s warning that the marketplace must be regulated to protect competition from the monopolies that inevitably will develop in a truly free marketplace is no trivial matter.

They have committed an egregious sin by creating a philosophy to justify stealing from others that they put together with disparate elements of philosophy, science, economics, and religion as though selecting from different columns on a Chinese menu to feed their ravenous greed.

Survival of the fittest is not a law; it is a description of what happens when a hungry apex predator hunts, kills, and consumes its prey. If there were no other laws at work after approximately 4 billion years of evolution, only apex predators would exist, and possibly none of them either as they would have extinguished themselves by cannibalism.

Natural selection is an evolutionary process that weeds out unsuccessful genetic adaptations. Natural selection is not survival of the fittest.

In a recent study published in the peer-reviewed journal Science, research scientists at the University of Chicago reported that lab rats can show empathy. Their experiment demonstrated that free rats will work tirelessly to free caged rats. Even when presented with chocolate chips, a free rat will continue to labor on freeing the caged rat until successful. Then they share and consume the chocolate.

While survival of the fittest may dictate the outcome in most battles between a hungry predator and its prey, unless its prey outsmarts it or it is fortunate to escape, empathy occupies a far more important role in determining whether a species survives. Empathy leads to survival of the wisest and validates the age old maxim that the meek shall inherit the Earth.

Empathy is the basis of the Golden Rule.

Randian neoliberalism is junk science at its worst and should be universally discredited and the legacy of its practitioners condemned to a mere footnote in the sorry history of human greed.

Happy holidays.

Namaste

Written full-test here by Nasoninblue with premission.

Author’s note: In case y’all missed it or want to refresh your recollection, <a hrPart 1 is here.

Deputy McGuire testified at the suppression hearing that he was dispatched by 911 to investigate a call by a citizen who reported that, “There’s this lady walking around in my neighbor’s yard talking to my neighbor and writing stuff down in a notebook and she mentioned something about tar heroin and all that stuff.”

The caller identified himself and described the woman and her vehicle. He also reported that the vehicle had a WA license and provided the number. He did not indicate if he had spoken with the woman; if he was present when the conversation took place; who told him about it if he was not present; or what she was writing down.

When he arrived in the area, the deputy searched for but he did not find the woman or the vehicle and he cleared the call without talking to the 911 caller. As he was approaching the traffic-controlled Cairo Road intersection in the passing lane on Highway 60, he noticed that he was passing a vehicle with its left turn signal blinking. The vehicle had WA plates and both the driver and the vehicle matched the description provided by the caller. He decided to pull her over and investigate.

He slowed down, allowing her to move ahead, and then he fell in directly behind her. She reacted by activating her right turn signal and moved over into the emergency lane along the right shoulder of the highway. As she did, he activated his emergency lights, moved over with her, and stopped behind her.

Upon request, she produced her license, registration, and proof of insurance without difficulty.

When he ordered her to get out of her vehicle, she did so without stumbling, and she followed his instructions without exhibiting any confusion or mental impairment. Other than “glassy” eyes and nervousness, he saw no signs of possible impairment. He administered a portable breath test (PBT) that she passed, effectively ruling out alcohol intoxication. Although she “failed all six clues” on the horizontal gaze nystagmus test (HGN), he administered the test improperly, according to the National Highway Transportation and Safety Administration (NHTSA) because he positioned her facing the headlights of oncoming traffic and his patrol cruiser’s emergency lights. NHTSA, which developed the test, warns police not to do that because the lights produce a false nystagmus.

The deputy conceded that he did not witness any bad driving and her blinking left-turn signal could have been due to her intending to move into the left lane, but his approaching vehicle in that lane prevented her from doing so.

After he placed her under arrest for DUI, he transported her to a hospital for a blood draw and discovered an apparent rock of crack next to her watch in the seatbelt crack of his back seat next to where she was sitting.

Author’s note: In another post we discussed his prior testimony under oath at the preliminary hearing and the grand jury in which he said he found her watch and the rock of crack under his back seat. In other words, he did not find it in plain view on the seat beside her. He said he pulled the back seat forward to look for her watch after she told him that it had fallen off and slipped behind the seat. She asked him to retrieve it because she was handcuffed and could not do it herself.

The trial judge entered three suppression orders.

1. The First Order.

On January 11, 2007, Judge Clymer issued his first order denying the motion to suppress evidence. Although all of the material findings of fact and conclusions of law were clearly erroneous, one finding of fact and its corresponding conclusion of law merit special consideration. In Finding of Fact 5, Judge Clymer wrote,

When Defendant first exited the [her] vehicle the Deputy observed a wristwatch in close proximity to a baggie with apparent controlled substance inside the car. Defendant denied the apparent controlled substance was hers but acknowledged the wristwatch was hers.

This did not inspire confidence as one can only wonder how the judge forgot or became confused and thought that the rock of crack was discovered in her vehicle rather than the police cruiser.

Not to worry, we thought. We pointed out that and other errors and asked him to reconsider his order, which he agreed to do.

2. The Second Order

On January 18, 2008, Judge Clymer entered his second order concerning the defense suppression motion. He found that while driving “in a right hand traffic lane with her left turn signal activated, [the appellant] did not turn but pulled to the right side of the roadway and stopped.” (Finding of Fact 3) “The deputy pulled in behind the stopped vehicle and activated his emergency lights.” (Finding of Fact 4) He concluded that the arresting officer “did not conduct a stop of the appellant’s vehicle” because she “pulled off the roadway and stopped” before “he pulled in behind her and turned on his emergency lights so as to investigate.” (Conclusion of Law 1)

Author’s note: We have already discussed whether this was an investigatory stop initiated by a police officer or a voluntary citizen initiated contact with a police officer. This was an investigatory stop.

Judge Clymer also concluded that “[t]he combination of a report of an unknown person, driving a Washington state licensed vehicle in a Paducah, Kentucky residential area, asking about tar heroin, later observed to signal a left turn but pull off the roadway to the right, constitutes reasonable suspicion to investigate and possibly cite for improper signal.” (Conclusion of Law 2)

Author’s note: A person who calls 911 to report a possible crime is presumed to have provided reliable information if he identifies himself and provides a current address. Since the caller in this case provided the requisite information, he would be presumed to have provided reliable information. However, even if one assumes that his information was accurate and reliable, he did not describe criminal activity. In addition, the judge’s findings of fact conflict with the information provided by the caller and the deputy’s testimony, which described an alert driver operating her motor vehicle in compliance with the traffic laws. He could not have cited her for “improper signal” because no such statute exists. Since the information provided by the presumptively reliable caller and the deputy described lawful activity, the judge erroneously concluded that the deputy had a reasonable suspicion “to investigate and possibly cite for improper signal.”

Regarding the appellant’s arrest, he found as fact that the appellant admitted that she had taken several prescription medications, including Clonazepam. (Finding of Fact 6) He also found that “[t]he maker of Clonazepam warns that it should not be used when driving a vehicle and that the drug causes abnormal eye movements.” (Finding of Fact 7) He concluded, “[d]efendants inquiring about heroin, failing an HGN test, signaling a left turn and pulling off the road to the right, and stating she was taking medication that would cause her to fail the test, constitutes probable cause to arrest for DUI.” (Conclusion of Law 4).

Author’s note: We have already discussed the HGN and Clonazepam issues noting that the product insert does not warn “that it should not be used when driving a vehicle and that the drug causes abnormal eye movements.” It advises physicians to warn their patients for whom they first prescribe Clonazepam to be careful because the drug might cause drowsiness and impair their ability to operate a motor vehicle or other machinery. If that happens, the dosage can be lowered to avoid impairment. This is actually a common warning given for many drugs that are prescribed to improve functioning. Clonazepam is such a drug and it is prescribed to enhance function by reducing anxiety and to control seizures. Dosage is critical. Assuming the judge was honest, the rest of the finding establishes that he was thinking of a different case when he crafted this effort.

To be continued.

This article is written by Masoninblue and published full text here with permission.

Author’s note: This diary is part of the Frog Gravy legal case and will be posted in three parts beginning today and ending on Thursday, which is Thanksgiving. In this part I explain basic pretrial legal procedure that is common in criminal cases. Specifically, I explain suppression hearings, which most of you probably have heard about, but might not know some of the finer details. This information will be helpful to understanding the incredibly bizarre events that followed; events that will be the subject of the next two parts. Now, get comfortable, buckle your sealtbelt, and get ready for your ride down the rabbit hole.

If you have not already done so, I recommend you watch the embedded video, in which a 16-year-old white girl is ordered to stand trial for murder as a 300-pound black man, to get yourself in the proper frame of mind. And, now here is The Curious Case of the Three Suppression Orders

The Fourth Amendment prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures. The exclusionary rule prohibits the prosecution from using evidence against a defendant, if that evidence was seized by police in violation of the Fourth Amendment.

A suppression hearing is a pretrial hearing in which a defendant asks the court to suppress evidence that the prosecution intends to introduce at trial against the defendant. If the court grants the request and orders the evidence suppressed, the prosecution is prohibited from introducing it or referring to it during the trial.

Suppression hearings are held before trial to resolve legal issues relating to the admissibility of evidence allegedly seized in violation of the Fourth Amendment, because in many cases, especially drug cases, the prosecution would be unable to try the case, if the court were to order the evidence suppressed. If that were to happen, the prosecution would be forced to dismiss the case and there would be no need for a trial.

Normally, a court issues a written order granting or denying the motion to suppress and sets forth findings of fact and conclusions of law that support the order. Findings of fact, as the term implies, are findings regarding what happened. They are the facts of the case upon which the conclusions of law must be based.

For example, let us suppose that Archie testified that a traffic light was green and Gillian testified that it was red. Whether the light was green or red would be a disputed fact and the judge would have to find as fact one or the other. If both witnesses agreed that the light was red, that would be an undisputed fact and the judge would have to find as fact that the light was red.

Normally, there is only one suppression order and it is entered before the scheduled trial date. Usually, the prevailing party drafts the order and provides opposing counsel with a copy. If opposing counsel agrees to the proposed order, the trial court will enter it as an agreed order without a hearing, unless the judge wants to change something. When that happens, the judge will schedule a hearing to finalize the order. The prosecutor, defense counsel, and the defendant appear for the hearing, hash out their differences, and the judge makes a final ruling. In other words, the process is transparent and ex parte contact with the judge (by one lawyer without the other present) is prohibited.

When suppression orders are appealed, the appellate courts review challenged findings of fact to determine if they are “clearly erroneous.” That is, unsupported by any evidence. Appellate courts uniformly refuse to second-guess a trial court’s challenged finding of fact, as long as there is some evidence to support it, even if the appellate judges might personally disagree with the trial court. Their reluctance to second-guess the trial court is based on the well-founded notion that they are not in as good a position to judge witness credibility since they were not present when the witness testified.

Conclusions of law are reviewed de novo. That is, they are reviewed anew without any deference to the trial court.

Crane-Station’s lawyer filed a motion, which is a formal request, to suppress all of the evidence seized by police after she was pulled over while driving down the highway and arrested for driving under the influence of drugs. Her lawyer argued for suppression on the grounds that:

1. The stop violated the Fourth Amendment because police pulled her over without a reasonable suspicion to believe that she had committed, was committing, or was about to commit a crime; and even if they did have a reasonable suspicion;

2. The subsequent arrest violated the Fourth Amendment because police lacked probable cause to believe that she had committed a crime.
The suppression hearing took place on November 27, 2006. Only one witness testified, Deputy Eddie McGuire of the McCracken County Sheriff’s Department.

We have already recounted his testimony in some detail and will not repeat it here, except to briefly summarize and note that there were no disputed facts, since he was the only witness who testified. Therefore, it should have been relatively easy for a sentient being, especially an educated judge who took an oath to uphold the Constitution and impartially follow the law, to come up with a set of findings of fact that were supported by the evidence.

Alas, it was not to be.

To be continued